Stress response is a process that occurs in response to an imbalance of cellular homeostasis following altered external and internal stimuli.
A cellular stress response consists of cellular changes required to accommodate internal or external insult. Recognition of stress occurs by sensing of alterations in essential macromolecules, which include DNA damage, protein misfolding/aggregation, or damage of membrane lipids. Most cellular stresses are accompanied by changes in cellular redox potential, another key regulatory event in the sensing and activation of the cellular stress response. A large set of cellular sensors, which include redox-sensitive proteins, cell surface receptors, and proteins that recognize changes in ROS, proteostasis, or DNA damage, regulate the activity of stress kinases and their respective substrates. Stress kinase signaling regulates transcriptional, translational, and...