Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Smad Proteins in TGF-Beta Signaling

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_5364-2

Definition

The Smad proteins are a family of structurally related molecules which perform a pivotal function in the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily intracellular cascade. This cytokine superfamily includes TGF-β, activins, and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) and regulates a broad scale of biological responses, including cell fate and extracellular matrix production. TGF-β superfamily members signal through heteromeric complexes of transmembrane type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors. Upon ligand binding, type II receptor phosphorylates type I receptor, thus activating its kinase. The activated type I receptor then propagates signals to downstream targets such as the Smad proteins. Smads (for Sma and Mad proteins from Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, respectively) are currently divided into three classes:
  • The receptor-activated Smads (R-Smads) transiently interact and become phosphorylated by specific activated type I receptor. In mammals, Smad1,...

Keywords

Bone Morphogenetic Protein Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Smad Protein Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Heteromeric Complex 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Attisano L, Wrana J (2000) Smads as transcriptional co-modulators. Curr Opin Cell Biol 12:235–243CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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  4. Zhou S, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B (1999) Going mad with smads. N Engl J Med 341:1144–1146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular Cell BiologyLeiden University Medical CenterEinthovenweg 20The Netherlands