Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

  • Marco A. Pierotti
  • Maria Grazia Borrello
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_4982-9

Synonyms

Definition

RTKs are high-affinity cell-surface receptors for specific polypeptide ligands, which have an intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity: they can transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a tyrosine residue. In the human genome, 58 RTK genes have been identified. RTKs are key components of signaling pathways, which control cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, and metabolism. Deregulation of RTKs by different mechanisms may contribute to neoplastic growth or developmental abnormalities.

Characteristics

Receptor tyrosine kinases show a common architecture comprising an extracellular portion that binds polypeptide ligands, a transmembrane helix, and a cytoplasmic portion that displays catalytic activity (Fig. 1). Docking sites for protein-protein interactions with cytoplasmic signaling molecules are also present. The majority of RTKs are formed by a single polypeptide chain in a monomeric conformation in the absence of a ligand. METand its...

Keywords

Acute Myeloid Leukemia Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type Synovial Sarcoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Avraham R, Yarden Y (2011) Feedback regulation of EGFR signaling:decision making by early and delayed loops. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 12:104–117Google Scholar
  2. Blume Jensen P, Hunter T (2001) Oncogenic kinase signalling. Nature 411:355–365CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Garcia-Echeverria C, Fabbro D (2004) Therapeutically targeted anticancer agents: inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinases. Mini Rev Med Chem 4:273–283CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Hubbard SR (1999) Structural analysis of receptor tyrosine kinases. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 71:343–358CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Kolibaba KS, Druken BJ (1997) Protein tyrosine kinases and cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta 1333:F217–F248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Pierotti MA (2001) Chromosomal rearrangements in thyroid carcinomas: a recombination or death dilemma. Cancer Lett 166:1–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Pierotti MA, Tamborini E, Negri T, Pricl S, Pilotti S (2011) Targeted therapy in GIST: in silico modeling for prediction of resistance. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 8(3):161–170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) Autocrine. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 311. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_468Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Chromosomal Rearrangement. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 842. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1141Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Deletion. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1080. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1553Google Scholar
  4. (2012) Paracrine. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 2783. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4380Google Scholar
  5. (2012) Point Mutation. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 2934. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4653Google Scholar
  6. (2012) PTB Domain. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3117. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4850Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Molecular Genetics of CancerFondazione Istituto FIRC di Oncologia MolecolareMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Experimental Oncology and Molecular MedicineFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei TumoriMilanItaly