Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Raf Kinase

  • Evan T. Keller
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_4936-3



Raf-1 (synonym C-Raf; RAF) encodes for a serine/threonine protein kinase that is activated by RAS and in turn phosphorylates and activates Map/Erk Kinase (MEK) one-half which then phosphorylates extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK). This signaling pathway is a key mediator of cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, and migration.


First discovered as mutant retroviral transforming agent, v-raf, Raf is a dual serine/threonine protein kinase. There are three forms of Raf, with Raf-1 being the most studied one. Other forms, A-Raf and B-RAF, are not as ubiquitously expressed. A-Raf is primarily in muscles and B-Raf is primarily in neurologic tissue. In contrast, Raf-1 is expressed in multiple tissues.

Raf-1 is 73 kDa and consists of 648 amino acids (aa). Four protein domains have been defined for Raf-1, including an N-terminal RBD (Ras-binding domain) (aa 56–131), a cysteine-finger region (aa 138–184) (CR1), a...


Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Acute Myeloid Leukemia Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Overexpression Transmembrane Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Urology and PathologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA