Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Raf Kinase

  • Evan T. Keller
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_4936-3

Synonyms

Definition

Raf-1 (synonym C-Raf; RAF) encodes for a serine/threonine protein kinase that is activated by RAS and in turn phosphorylates and activates Map/Erk Kinase (MEK) one-half which then phosphorylates extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK). This signaling pathway is a key mediator of cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, and migration.

Characteristics

First discovered as mutant retroviral transforming agent, v-raf, Raf is a dual serine/threonine protein kinase. There are three forms of Raf, with Raf-1 being the most studied one. Other forms, A-Raf and B-RAF, are not as ubiquitously expressed. A-Raf is primarily in muscles and B-Raf is primarily in neurologic tissue. In contrast, Raf-1 is expressed in multiple tissues.

Raf-1 is 73 kDa and consists of 648 amino acids (aa). Four protein domains have been defined for Raf-1, including an N-terminal RBD (Ras-binding domain) (aa 56–131), a cysteine-finger region (aa 138–184) (CR1), a...

Keywords

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Acute Myeloid Leukemia Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Overexpression Transmembrane Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Baccarini M (2002) An old kinase on a new path: Raf and apoptosis. Cell Death Differ 9(8):783–785CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Caraglia M, Tassone P et al (2006) Targeting Raf-kinase: molecular rationales and translational issues. Ann Oncol 17(Suppl 7):vii124–vii127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Rodriguez-Viciana P, Oses-Prieto J et al (2006) A phosphatase holoenzyme comprised of Shoc2/Sur8 and the catalytic subunit of PP1 functions as an M-Ras effector to modulate Raf activity. Mol Cell 22(2):217–230CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Savelyeva L, Schwab M (2001) Amplification of oncogenes revisited: from expression profiling to clinical application. Cancer Lett 167(2):115–123CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Yeung K, Seitz T et al (1999) Suppression of Raf-1 kinase activity and MAP kinase signalling by RKIP. Nature 401(6749):173–177CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Urology and PathologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA