Autotaxin is a 100-kDa glycoprotein enzyme having both lysophospholipase D activity that can hydrolyze lysophosphatidylcholine into lysophosphatidic acid and also phosphodiesterase activity to cleave phosphodiester bonds found in the DNA backbone, although it prefers to hydrolyze lysophospholipids.
Autotaxin belongs to a family of ENPP proteins (ENPP/NPP1-7) found in vertebrates that are either secreted ectoenzyme glycoproteins or membrane associated. They function as stable enzymes that hydrolyze pyrophosphate and phosphodiester bonds of nucleotides and lysophospholipids. There are multiple isoforms of autotaxin arising from alternatively spliced transcripts: alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon. The isoforms beta and delta are most often found in mammals, while the alpha and epsilon isoforms cannot exist in vivo. The alpha isoform was originally discovered...