Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Protease-Activated Receptors

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_4784-2

Synonyms

Definition

Protease-activated receptors (PARs) form a family of seven transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors consisting of four gene members. PAR1, PAR3, and PAR4 respond to the serine protease thrombin, while PAR2 is activated by trypsin, tryptase, and the coagulation factors, VIIa and Xa, but not by thrombin. All members are uniquely activated via proteolytic cleavage that exposes an otherwise hindered ligand at their N-terminus extracellular portion. PARs can be viewed as receptors that carry their own ligands. In addition to thrombin, PARs convey cellular responses to a wide spectrum of serine proteases as also the matrix metalloprotease 1, MMP1. PARs1–4 are similarly organized, all encoded by two exons and separated by an intron of variable size. Exon 1 encodes a signal peptide, and exon 2 encodes the mature receptor protein. In humans, PARs1–3 are localized on chromosome 5q13.

Characteristics

Protease-activated receptors (PARs) belong to the...

Keywords

Thrombin Receptor Mouse Platelet Epithelial Tumor Cell Line Transmembrane Domain Protein Thrombin Signaling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OncologyHadassah-University HospitalJerusalemIsrael