Prostate Cancer Clinical Oncology
Prostate cancer is a malignant neoplasm that arises in the male prostate gland. Most prostate cancers are adenocarcinoma(95 %). About 4 % have transitional cell morphology and are thought to arise from the lining of the prostatic urethra. Few have neuroendocrine morphology and are believed to arise from the neuroendocrine stem cells normally present in the prostate or from aberrant differentiation programs during cell transformation. Of the adenocarcinomas, 70 % arise in the peripheral zone, 15–20 % in the central zone, and 10–15 % in the transition zone. These zones can sometimes be identified by transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). Most adenocarcinomas are multifocal with synchronous involvement of multiple zones of the prostate, and this may be due to clonal tumors that have spread intraprostatically or/and multiple tumor-initiation sites intraprostatically. In addition, multifocality may indicate a more aggressive tumor biology. The most commonly used system of classifying...
KeywordsProstate Cancer Radical Prostatectomy Gleason Score Digital Rectal Examination Watchful Waiting
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