Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Phosphatase

  • Ajay Singh
  • Arun Bhardwaj
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_4525-7

Synonyms

Definition

It is a group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphoric acid monoesters into a phosphate ion and a molecule containing free hydroxyl group. This action is directly opposite to that of a kinase (attaches phosphate groups to their substrates by using energetic molecules like ATP or GTP).

Characteristics

Phosphatases are broadly characterized/classified into two or more classes/subclasses based on their optimal pH condition or substrate type:

Classes Based on the Optimum pH Condition

  1. 1.

    Acid phosphatases: a group of phosphatases showing optimal activity at an acidic pH, i.e., pH <7 (usual range pH 3–pH 6). These phosphatases are generally found in the serum, liver, spleen, kidney, and prostate. An elevated serum level of various acid phosphatases is associated with various pathological conditions like Paget disease, Gaucher disease, Niemann-Pick disease, myelocytic leukemia, and metastatic prostate cancer.

     
  2. 2.

    Alkaline phosphatases...

Keywords

Endometrial Cancer Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Protein Phosphatase Phosphate Group Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Bhardwaj A, Singh S, Srivastava SK, Honkanen RE, Reed E, Singh AP (2011) Modulation of protein phosphatase 2A activity alters androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells: therapeutic implications. Mol Cancer Ther 10:720–731PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhardwaj A, Singh S, Srivastava SK, Arora S, Hyde SJ, Andrews J, Grizzle WE, Singh AP (2014) Restoration of PPP2CA expression reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and suppresses prostate tumour growth and metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model. Br J Cancer 110(8):2000–2010.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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  8. Song MS, Salmena L, Pandolfi PP (2012) The functions and regulation of the PTEN tumour suppressor. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 13:283–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Oncologic SciencesMitchell Cancer Institute, University of South AlabamaMobileUSA