Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Phase II Enzymes

  • Yuesheng Zhang
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_4510-2

Synonyms

Definition

Phase 2 enzymes in principle are part of the cellular biotransformation machinery. Cellular biotransformation of xenobiotics and endobiotics, including carcinogens, may be divided into three sequential phases: phase 1 (oxidation, reduction, and hydrolysis reactions), phase 2 (conjugation reactions), and phase 3 (further modification and transport by efflux transporters). Phase 2 enzymes traditionally refer to the enzymes that catalyze the conjugation reactions of various substrates with endogenous ligands, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), N-acetyltransferase (NAT), and sulfotransferase (SULT). However, the term has gradually become broader in scope as it has also been used by an increasing number of investigators for a number of enzymes that catalyze phase 1 reactions, such as...

Keywords

Epoxide Hydrolase Antioxidant Response Element Nrf2 Activation Cellular Antioxidant Capacity Light Subunit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

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See Also

  1. (2012) γ-Glutamylcystein synthetase. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1559. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2437Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Chemoprevention. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 778. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1070Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Roswell Park Cancer InstituteBuffaloUSA