Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

DNA Oxidation Damage

  • Andrew R. Collins
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_4306-2

Definition

Represents free radical damage to DNA. Oxidation essentially involves the addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogen atoms from a molecule. Oxidation of DNA may simply result in a small change to one of the bases, or a deoxyribose in the backbone of the molecule may be altered to such an extent that the continuity of the backbone is broken. Single-strand breaks are more common than double-strand breaks.

Characteristics

DNA is thought of as a very stable molecule and yet it readily undergoes damage, by a variety of agents that can be either endogenous or exogenous in origin. Ionizing radiation (e.g., X-rays), ultraviolet radiation, and various chemicals, including some present in tobacco smoke (tobacco carcinogenesis), cause the release of free radicals, and if DNA is not protected, oxidation can occur. Free radicals (reactive oxygen species) also occur within the cells of the body, arising as a minor product during the cycle of oxidation of carbohydrates in the mitochondria....

Keywords

High Performance Liquid Chromatography Comet Assay Base Excision Repair Base Oxidation Lung Cancer Incidence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

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  5. Lindahl T (1993) Instability and decay of the primary structure of DNA. Nature 362:709–714CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) Antioxidant. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 216. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_328Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Antioxidant Defenses. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 216. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_330Google Scholar
  3. (2012) GC-MS. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1515. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2344Google Scholar
  4. (2012) Knock-Out Mouse. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1957. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3239Google Scholar
  5. (2012) Mutation. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 2412. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3911Google Scholar
  6. (2012) 8-Oxoguanine. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 2734. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4313Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NutritionUniversity of OsloOsloNorway