Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Oral Cancer

  • Victor D. Martinez
  • Cathie Garnis
  • Wan L. Lam
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_4249-2

Synonyms

Lesion on tongue; lip; and other areas in the mouth

Definition

Oral cancer is a malignancy that occurs in different parts of the oral cavity, including: lips, the inside lining of the lips and cheeks (buccal mucosa), the teeth, the gums, the front two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth below the tongue, and the bony roof of the mouth (hard palate).

Characteristics

Epidemiology and Etiology

Oral cancer is a significant global health concern. It is responsible for over 300,000 new cases per year worldwide. Sixty to eighty percent of cases are diagnosed at a late stage (in high and low resource countries, respectively), resulting in poor five-year survival rates. Squamous cell carcinomas constitute more than 90% of malignant tumors of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Males shows a higher incidence than females, mainly because a significantly higher exposure to etiological factors. The main etiological factors are tobacco and alcohol use. These two agents are strongly...

Keywords

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Oral Cancer Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Field Cancerization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Arnaoutakis D, Bishop J, Westra W, Califano JA (2013) Recurrence patterns and management of oral cavity premalignant lesions. Oral oncology 49:814–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Jithesh PV, Risk JM, Schache AG, et al. (2013) The epigenetic landscape of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer 108:370–9PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Leemans CR, Braakhuis BJ, Brakenhoff RH (2011) The molecular biology of head and neck cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 11:9–22CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Martinez VD, MacAulay CE, Guillaud M, et al. (2014) Targeting of chemoprevention to high-risk potentially malignant oral lesions: challenges and opportunities. Oral oncology 50:1123–30PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Rosin MP, Cheng X, Poh C, et al. (2006) Use of allelic loss to predict malignant risk for low-grade oral epithelial dysplasia. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 6:357–62Google Scholar
  6. The Cancer Genome Atlas Network (2015) Comprehensive genomic characterization of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Nature 517:576–82PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) CCND1. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 688. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_906Google Scholar
  2. (2012) EGFR. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1211. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1828Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Erythroplakia. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 1313–1314. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1999Google Scholar
  4. (2012) FHIT. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1394. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2168Google Scholar
  5. (2012) Field cancerization. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1406. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2185Google Scholar
  6. (2012) Leukoplakia. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 2028. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3332Google Scholar
  7. (2012) MYC family. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 2426. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3922Google Scholar
  8. (2012) Radiotherapy. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3158. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4926Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victor D. Martinez
    • 1
  • Cathie Garnis
    • 2
  • Wan L. Lam
    • 3
  1. 1.British Columbia Cancer Research CentreVancouverCanada
  2. 2.MIT Center for Cancer ResearchCambridgeUSA
  3. 3.Department of Cancer Genetics and Developmental BiologyBritish Columbia Cancer Research CentreVancouverCanada