Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Oncolytic Virus

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_4231-5

Synonyms

Definition

Oncolytic viruses are viruses that replicate (multiply themselves) selectively in cancer cells and are attenuated (crippled) in normal cells and as a result destroy cancer cells (“onco” cancer, “lysis” cell destruction through necrosis) and tumors with minimal toxicity to normal cells and tissues.

Characteristics

Therapeutic oncolytic viruses (virotherapeutics) constitute a platform of targeted anticancer agents that have unique mechanisms of action compared with other cancer therapeutics, such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Oncolytic viruses are viruses that replicate (multiply themselves) selectively in cancer cells and are attenuated (crippled) in normal cells and as a result destroy cancer cells and tumors with minimal toxicity to normal cells and tissues. The development of virotherapeutics has evolved from the use of in vitro-passaged strains (first generation), to genetically...

Keywords

Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Oncolytic Virus Oncolytic Adenovirus Follow Virus Infection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Kirn D et al (2001) Replication-selective virotherapy for cancer: biological principles, risk management and future directions. Nat Med 7:781–787CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Liu T et al (2007) Clinical trial results with oncolytic virotherapy: a century of promise, a decade of progress. Nat Clin Pract Oncol 4:101–117CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Parato K et al (2006) Recent progress in the battle between oncolytic viruses and tumors. Nat Rev Cancer 5:965–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jennerex Biotherapeutics Inc.San FranciscoUSA