Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Nutrition Status

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_4179-2

Definition

The definition of nutrition status varies by discipline. In general, it refers to the presence or absence of malnutrition. The term “malnutrition” applies to both underweight and overweight populations. Malnutrition is defined as any disorder of nutrition status resulting from inadequate intake and/or increased requirements, impaired absorption, altered transport, and altered nutrient utilization.

Although no single index can accurately indicate poor nutrition status, weight and weight history are the parameters most commonly used. This method has limitations. Weight alone does not indicate the nature and extent of tissue loss in patients with cachexia. It also does not indicate specific metabolic or biochemical nutritional issues.

Characteristics

Weight loss is common in patients with cancer, with 31–100 % of oncology patients experiencing weight loss depending upon tumor site, stage, and treatment. As little as 5 % weight loss is associated with increased mortality and...

Keywords

Nutrition Intervention Mini Nutritional Assessment Subjective Global Assessment Oral Nutritional Supplement Nutrition Screening 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. August DA, Huhmann MB (2009) American society for parenteral and enteral nutrition (ASPEN) board of directors. ASPEN clinical guidelines: Nutrition support therapy during adult anticancer treatment and in hematopoietic cell transplantation. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 33(5):472–500Google Scholar
  2. Bozzetti F (2002) Rationale and indications for preoperative feeding of malnourished surgical cancer patients. Nutrition 18:953–959CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Leser M, Ledesma N, Bergerson S, Trujillo E (2012) Oncology nutrition for clinical practice. American Dietetic Association, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  4. Ottery F, Bender F, Kasenic S (2002) The design and implementation of a model nutritional oncology clinic. Oncol Issues (Integrating Nutrition into Your Cancer Program) 17(2):2–6Google Scholar
  5. Ravasco P (2015) Nutritional approaches in cancer: Relevance of individualized counseling and supplementation. Nutrition 31(4):603–4Google Scholar
  6. White JV, Guenter P, Jensen G, Malone A, Schofield M (2012) Academy malnutrition work group; ASPEN malnutrition task force; ASPEN board of directors. Consensus statement: Academy of nutrition and dietetics and American society for parenteral and enteral nutrition: Characteristics recommended for the identification and documentation of adult malnutrition (under nutrition). JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 36(3):275–83Google Scholar
  7. Yu K, Zhou XR, He SL (2013) A multicentre study to implement nutritional risk screening and evaluate clinical outcome and quality of life in patients with cancer. Eur J Clin Nutr 67(7):732–7Google Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) Cancer cachexia syndrome. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p. 609. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_803Google Scholar
  2. (2012) ECOG performance status. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p. 1209. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1804Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Lean body mass. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p. 1999. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3300Google Scholar
  4. (2012) Nutrition assessment. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p. 2589. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4177Google Scholar
  5. (2012) Nutrition screening. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p. 2589. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4178Google Scholar
  6. (2012) Patient generated subjective global assessment. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p. 2798. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4409Google Scholar
  7. (2012) Quality of life. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p. 3128. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4881Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nutrition Sciences, School of Health Related ProfessionsRutgers The State UniversityNewarkUSA