Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Micronucleus Assay

  • Cholpon S. Djuzenova
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_3727-2

Definition

Measurement of micronucleus (MN) frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes is extensively used in molecular epidemiology and cytogenetics to evaluate the presence and the extent of chromosomal damage in human populations exposed to genotoxic agents or bearing a susceptible genetic profile. MN is a small, extranuclear chromatin-containing structure in the cell cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane without any detectable link to the main nucleus.

Characteristics

Micronuclei (MNi) are expressed in dividing cells and they can occur spontaneously or as a result of chemical or radiation treatment. Additional parameters that can influence MN frequencies are inherited or acquired genetic polymorphisms in genes responsible for the metabolic activation of clastogens (agents causing chromosomal breaks) and for the fidelity of DNA repair/misrepair, DNA replication, and/or chromosome segregation. Concerning the induction mechanism, two types of MNi exist:
  1. 1.

    MNi that contain chromosome...

Keywords

Genotoxic Agent Dicentric Chromosome Acentric Fragment Bloom Syndrome Main Nucleus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Djuzenova CS, Mühl B, Fehn M et al (2006) Radiosensitivity in breast cancer assessed by the Comet and micronucleus assays. Br J Cancer 94:1194–1203CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. El-Zein RA, Schabath MB, Etzel CJ et al (2006) Cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay as a novel biomarker for lung cancer risk. Cancer Res 66:6449–6456CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Fenech M, Morley A (1985) Measurement of micronuclei in lymphocytes. Mutat Res 147:29–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Mateuca R, Lombaert N, Aka PV et al (2006) Chromosomal changes: induction, detection methods and applicability in human biomonitoring. Biochimie 88:1515–1531CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Olaharski A, Sotelo R, Solorza-Luna G et al (2006) Tetraploidy and chromosomal instability are early events during cervical carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 27:3317–3343CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Klinik für Strahlentherapie der Universität WürzburgWürzburgGermany