Menopausal Symptoms After Breast Cancer Therapy
Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from loss of ovarian activity. Natural menopause is diagnosed following 12 months of amenorrhea, which is not due to a pathological cause. Menopause secondary amenorrhea (early menopause, surgical menopause) can also be induced by surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.
Breast cancer is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in women of middle years in the western world. There has been a reduction in annual breast cancer death rates in almost all western countries, which may be due to the increasing use of breast screening and adjuvant systemic therapy (admixture populations). As a result, more women are becoming long-term breast cancer survivors.
A common side effect of breast cancer treatment is the earlier onset of menopause or menopausal symptoms. Many women who are premenopausal at diagnosis will develop premature menopause resulting from chemotherapy,...