Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

MDM Genes

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_3583-2

Synonyms

Definition

The MDM are two genes, MDM2 and MDM4, found amplified in different human tumors. Their main activity is the binding and regulation of the oncosuppressor p53.

Characteristics

The MDM gene family comprises MDM2 and MDM4 (also called MDMX), identified in 1992 and 1997, respectively. The first identified gene, MDM2, derives its name from having been isolated from small, extrachromosomal bodies present in a mouse cell line and called mouse double minute. On the same double minute, MDM1 and MDM3 were also isolated, but they resulted completely unrelated to MDM2.

MDM2 and MDM4 show high similarity at the level of gene sequence and structure and may be considered paralogs. Orthologs of MDM2 and MDM4 have been described in different animal species across evolution, from Homo sapiens to the zebra fish, Danio Rerio, to the frog Xenopus laevis and to the lampreys, suggesting an ancient origin of these genes. MDM2 and MDM4are indeed essential genes for...

Keywords

Mouse Double Minute Mouse Development Ring Finger Domain MDM2 Overexpression Accelerate Tumor Formation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Burgess A, Chia KM, Haupt S, Thomas D, Haupt Y, Lim E (2016) Clinical overview of MDM2/X-targeted therapies. Front Oncol 6:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Khoo KH, Verma CS, Lane DP (2014) Drugging the p53 pathway: understanding the route to clinical efficacy. Nat Rev Drug Discov 13:217–236CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Marine JC, Francoz S, Martens M et al (2006) Keeping p53 in check: essential and synergistic functions of Mdm2 and Mdm4. Cell Death Differ 13:927–934CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Moretti F (2016) Novel insights about the MDM2/MDM4 heterodimer. Mol Cell Oncol 3:e1066923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Tollini LA, Zhang Y (2012) p53 Regulation Goes Live-Mdm2 and MdmX Co-Star: Lessons Learned from Mouse Modeling Genes Cancer 3:219–225CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Onel K, Cordon-Cardo C (2004) MDM2 and prognosis. Mol Cancer Res 2:1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) Alternative RNA Splicing. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 148. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_212Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Biomarkers. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp 408-409. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6601Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Kinase. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1943. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3217Google Scholar
  4. (2012) Neddylation. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 2469. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3995Google Scholar
  5. (2012) P53. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 2747. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4331Google Scholar
  6. (2012) Polymorphism. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp 2954-2955. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4673Google Scholar
  7. (2012) RING Finger Domain. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3309. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5108Google Scholar
  8. (2012) Sumoylation. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3562. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5572Google Scholar
  9. (2012) Transgenic. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3763. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5919Google Scholar
  10. (2012) Ubiquitin. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3825. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6083Google Scholar
  11. (2012) Zinc-Finger Proteins. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3977. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6299Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Cell Biology and NeurobiologyNational Council Research of ItalyRomeItaly