Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are a family of protein kinases that mediate the transfer of phosphate from ATP to various proteins. They are evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals and are expressed in nematodes, insects, slime molds, and plants as well. Moreover, the MAP kinases are ubiquitous enzymes, which are highly expressed in all cells of eukaryotic organisms. These kinases, operating within intracellular signaling pathways, play a key role in the transmission of extracellular signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. The MAP kinases respond to a wide array of extracellular agents, including mitogens, hormones, and cytokines, to regulate a variety of cellular responses such as proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, stress response, and apoptosis.
In order to survive and perform their functions, cells need to respond to many extracellular signals such as mitogens, hormones, cytokines, physical changes of the environment, and...
KeywordsKinase Cascade Activation Loop MAPK Cascade Dual Specificity Phosphatase Extracellular Agent
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