Lipid peroxidation is the metabolic process in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) result in the oxidative deterioration of lipids. This may significantly affect cell membrane structure and function.
Lipid peroxidation most often affects polyunsaturated fatty acids, because they contain methylene -CH2- groups which contain hydrogen that is especially reactive with ROS. Increased ROS production occurs in inflammation, during radiation, or during metabolism of hormones, drugs, and environmental toxins. This can overwhelm endogenous protective antioxidantmechanisms and increase ROS-mediated damage to membrane structure and function. Such ROS reactions can also lead to protein damage, including DNA repair enzymes and polymerases, impairment, and production of aldehyde by-products such as malondialdehyde (MDA; β-hydroxy-acrolein) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). MDA is formed during homolytic decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides that contain more than two double...