Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Linkage Disequilibrium

  • Madalene A. Earp
  • Ellen L. Goode
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_3368-3

Synonyms

Definition

Linkage disequilibrium refers to the nonrandom association of alleles at two or more loci in a general population. When alleles are in linkage disequilibrium, haplotypes do not occur at the expected frequencies. The level of linkage disequilibrium between two alleles is related to the time of the mutation events, genetic distance, recombination rates, and processes such as selection and genetic drift. Linkage disequilibrium can be used to improve the power and efficiency of cancer genetic association studies.

Characteristics

Introduction to Linkage Disequilibrium

Two or more alleles are said to be in linkage equilibrium when they occur randomly in a population. Conversely, alleles are in linkage disequilibrium when they do not occur randomly with respect to each other.

Consider two neighboring polymorphic loci A and B with two alleles each ( A 1 and A 2 and B 1 and B 2, respectively) having the allele frequencies shown in Table 1.
Table 1

Allele...

Keywords

Linkage Disequilibrium Genetic Association Study Haplotype Block HapMap Project Causal Polymorphism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. 1000 Genomes Project http://www.1000genomes.org/
  2. An alphabetical list of genetic analysis software. http://www.jurgott.org/linkage/ListSoftware.html
  3. International HapMap Project http://hapmap.org/
  4. NIEHS Environmental Genome Project, University of Washington, Seattle. http://egp.gs.washington.edu/
  5. Thomas DC (2004) Statistical methods in genetic epidemiology. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. White KL et al (2011) Genomics of the NF-κB signaling pathway: hypothesized role in ovarian cancer. Cancer Causes Control 22(5):785–801PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Zondervan KT, Cardon LR (2004) The complex interplay among factors that influence allelic association. Nat Rev Genet 5:89–100CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) Case–control study. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 674. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_870Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Cell cycle. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 737. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_994Google Scholar
  3. (2012 Genotype. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1540. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2396Google Scholar
  4. (2012) DNA repair. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1141. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1687Google Scholar
  5. (2012) Linkage. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 2043. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3367Google Scholar
  6. (2012) Polymorphism. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 2954–2955. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4673Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Health Sciences ResearchMayo Clinic College of MedicineRochesterUSA