Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Lead Exposure

  • Edwin van Wijngaarden
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_3296-2

Definition

Lead (Pb) is a heavy, low melting, bluish-gray metal that occurs naturally in various mineral forms in the earth’s crust. Lead compounds are substances in which lead is combined with two or more other elements. Organic lead refers to lead compounds which contain carbon, whereas inorganic lead refers to those substances that do not contain carbon and includes metallic lead.

Characteristics

Sources of Lead Exposure

Exposure to lead is predominantly due to anthropogenic activity, which has occurred since industrial lead production started millennia ago. The greatest potential for exposure has been experienced by industrial workers, and lead exposure is currently generally well controlled in major lead-using industries such as smelting and battery manufacture (Table 1). However, cases of clinical lead poisoning in certain industries still occur and workers using end-products containing lead, such as lead-based paints, continue to be exposed and little to no decreases in lead...

Keywords

Lead Exposure Blood Lead Level Control Association Study Clinical Lead Poisoning Inorganic Lead 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

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See Also

  1. (2012) Anthropogenic activity. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 202. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_301Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Biomarkers. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 408–409. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6601Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Cortical bone. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 982. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1339Google Scholar
  4. (2012) Renal cancer. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 3225–3226. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6575Google Scholar
  5. (2012) Smelting. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3455. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5380Google Scholar
  6. (2012) Trabecular bone. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3744. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5882Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Public Health SciencesUniversity of Rochester School of Medicine and DentistryRochesterUSA