Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Interleukin-4

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_3098-2

Definition

IL-4 is a prototypic immunoregulatory cytokine secreted by activated CD4 T cells of the T helper 2 (Th2) subset and by basophils and mast cells. IL-4 has an important role in regulating antibody production, hematopoiesis, inflammation, and the development of effector T cell responses.

Characteristics

IL-4 is a 15–20 kD glycoprotein composed of 129 amino acids. IL-4 contains six cysteine residues that are all involved in intramolecular disulfide bridges. The secondary structure of IL-4 was shown to consist of a four-helix bundle with a unique up-up-down-down helix topology. The X-ray structure reveals that IL-4 is a highly compact and globular protein with a predominantly hydrophobic core.

Human IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) is found on T cells, B cells, mast cells, basophils, macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, hepatocytes, keratinocytes, stromal cells, and neuroblasts. IL-4 receptor is a heterodimer composed of an α-subunit, with IL-4-binding affinity, and the common...

Keywords

Allergic Rhinitis Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Kinase JAK1 Intramolecular Disulfide Bridge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Brown MA, Hural J (1997) Functions of IL-4 and control of its expression. Crit Rev Immunol 17:1–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Murphy KM, Ouyang W, Farrar JD et al (2000) Signaling and transcription in T helper development. Annu Rev Immunol 18:451–494CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Wang LH, Yang XY, Kirken RA et al (2000) Targeted disruption of stat6 DNA binding activity by an oligonucleotide decoy blocks IL-4-driven T(H)2 cell response. Blood 95:1249–1257PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Cancer Institute – FrederickFrederickUSA