Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Immune Escape

  • Jiahua Qian
  • Tamara Floyd
  • Yufei Jiang
  • Anat Ohali
  • Raed Samar
  • Hong Yang
  • Samir N. Khleif
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_2975-2

Definition

Immune escape is one of the hallmarks of cancer development and metastasis. It is characterized by the lack of ability of the immune system to eliminate transformed cells prior to and after tumor development.

Characteristics

Several mechanisms have been proposed and tested to explain cancer immune escape. It is now evident that both the host as well as the tumor play important roles in this phenomenon. The host’s contribution is manifested by the host’s ability to recognize to antigens expressed by tumor cells, a phenomenon known as “host ignorance.” It happens because of defects in both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. The tumor’s contribution is manifested by the adaptation of tumor cells to evade the immune systems or developing a microenvironment that suppresses the immune system.

Host Ignorance

The innate arm of the immune system forms a first line of defense against cancers. Macrophages, dendritic cells, and monocytes are essential in eliminating...

Keywords

Immune Escape Inhibitory Ligand Myeloid Suppressor Cell Essential Amino Acid Tryptophan Surface Marker CD11b 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

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  2. Gajewski TF, Meng Y, Harlin H (2006) Immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. J Immunother 29:233–240CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Lang K, Entschladen F, Weidt C et al (2006) Tumor immune escape mechanisms: impact of the neuroendocrine system. Cancer Immunol Immunother 55:749–760CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Munn DH (2006) Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, tumor-induced tolerance and counter regulation. Curr Opin Immunol 18:220–225CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Rivoltini L, Canese P, Huber V et al (2005) Escape strategies and reasons for failure in the interaction between tumour cells and the immune system: how can we tilt the balance towards immune-mediated cancer control? Expert Opin Biol Ther 5:463–476CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiahua Qian
    • 1
  • Tamara Floyd
    • 2
  • Yufei Jiang
    • 2
  • Anat Ohali
    • 2
  • Raed Samar
    • 2
  • Hong Yang
    • 2
  • Samir N. Khleif
    • 3
  1. 1.QiagenFrederickUSA
  2. 2.Cancer Vaccine Section, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.GRU Cancer CenterAugustaUSA