Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Anoxia

  • Yerem Yeghiazarians
  • Adrian L Harris
  • Kurosh Ameri
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_292-2

Synonyms

Definition

Literal Definition

Anoxia literally means the complete absence of oxygen (O2) and has been described as the state where no O2 (0 % O2) is detected in the tissue. This definition contrasts the definition of hypoxia, which means low levels of oxygen as opposed to complete absence.

Conceptual Definition

The major function of the vasculature is to deliver oxygen and nutrients to cells and remove carbon dioxide and other metabolic by-products from them. Oxygenated blood is distributed in each tissue according to the functions and needs of that tissue, which differs from one tissue to another. Therefore, when studying different tissues and cell types, there are significant variations in cellular response(s) based on oxygen level and/or corresponding nutrient level. Hence, oxygen tension has to be viewed with respect to a particular tissue/organ and is therefore essentially a...

Keywords

Prolyl Hydroxylase Cellular Fate Unfold Protein Response Target ATF4 Protein Unfold Protein Response Target Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Notes

Glossary

Anemia

Below normal levels of red blood cells or hemoglobin, or both.

Angiogenesis

The process of developing new blood vessels.

βTrCP

Beta-transducin repeat-containing proteins (βTrCP) serve as the substrate recognition subunits for the SCF complexes. βTrCP interact with substrates phosphorylated within the DSGXX(X)S destruction motifs. SCFβ-TrCP-mediate ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of phosphorylated substrates.

DNA methyl transferases

These are enzymes that transfer a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the carbon 5 position of cytosine.

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are important intermediates in signal transduction pathways that are initiated by many types of cell surface receptors. MAP kinase cascades are organized by a core-signaling module consisting of three protein kinases: a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MKKK), a MAP kinase kinase (MKK), and a MAP kinase.

Necrosis

The sum of the morphological changes indicative of cell death and caused by the progressive degradative action of enzymes. It may affect groups of cells or part of a structure or an organ.

Proteasome

Protein degradation machinery within the cell that can digest a variety of proteins. The proteasome is itself made up of proteins and requires ATP to work.

ROS

Reactive oxygen species. These are chemically reactive molecules containing oxygen that are formed in biological systems as by-products of the reduction of molecular oxygen. ROS include the superoxide radical anion, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, hydroperoxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and peroxyl radical.

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a factor made by cells that stimulates the formation of new blood vessels, a process called angiogenesis. VEGF also acts as a mitogen for vascular endothelial (vessel lining) cells, stimulating these cells to divide and multiply.

XBP1

X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is transcription factor and a transcriptional activator of the UPR. Splicing of XBP1 mRNA is initiated by the RNAse activity of IRE1 to generate mature XBP1 mRNA.

References

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  2. Ameri K, Lewis CE, Raida M, Sowter H, Hai T, Harris AL (2004) Anoxic induction of ATF-4 through HIF-1-independent pathways of protein stabilization in human cancer cells. Blood 103(5):1876–1882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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See Also

  1. (2012) Anemia. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 178. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_269Google Scholar
  2. (2012) ATF6. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 299. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_430Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Eukaryotic initiation factors. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 1346–1347. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2037Google Scholar
  4. (2012) DNA-Methyl-Transferases. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1147. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1681Google Scholar
  5. (2012) GADD153. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1485. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2299Google Scholar
  6. (2012) IRE1. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1912. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3145Google Scholar
  7. (2012) MAPK. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 2167. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3532Google Scholar
  8. (2012) PERK. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 2819–2820. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4469Google Scholar
  9. (2012) ROS. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3321. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5125Google Scholar
  10. (2012) SCF. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3340. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5168Google Scholar
  11. (2012) βTrCP. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3777. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5963Google Scholar
  12. (2012) Tubulogenesis. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3792. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6013Google Scholar
  13. (2012) Unfolded protein response. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3846. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6108Google Scholar
  14. (2012) VEGF. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3906. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6174Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yerem Yeghiazarians
    • 1
  • Adrian L Harris
    • 2
  • Kurosh Ameri
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Translational Cardiac Stem Cell Program, Eli, and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Cardiovascular Research InstituteUniversity Of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe HospitalUniversity of Oxford, Cancer Research UKHeadington, OxfordUK
  3. 3.Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Translational Cardiac Stem Cell Program, Eli, and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Cardiovascular Research InstituteUniversity of California San Francisco (UCSF)San FranciscoUSA