Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab


  • Ronny Racine
  • Vinata B. Lokeshwar
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_2881-2


Hyaluronidases (HAases) are endoglycosidases that degrade hyaluronic acid (HA). HA is a non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan. Exhaustive digestion of HA with HAase generates tetrasaccharides, whereas limited digestion generates HA fragments, some of which induce angiogenesis.


Six HAase genes are present in the human genome and these occur in two linked triplates. HYAL-1, HYAL-2, and HYAL-3 genes are clustered in the chromosome 3p21.3 locus, whereas HYAL-4, HYAL-P1, and PH20 (which encodes testicular HAase) reside in the chromosome 7q31.3 locus (Stern and Jedrzejas 2006). Based on their pH activity profiles, HAases are divided into two categories. HYAL-1, HYAL-2, and HYAL-3 are considered acidic HAases because they are active at acidic pH. For example, HYAL-1 has a pH optimum around 4.0–4.2, and the enzyme is inactive above pH 5.0. It is normally expressed in serum and urine. On the contrary, PH20 or the testicular HAase is a neutral HAase as it is active at pH 7.0...


Hyaluronic Acid Forster Resonance Energy Transfer Hyaluronidase Activity Inhibit Prostate Cancer Cell Multicellular Resistance 
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See Also

  1. (2012) Biomarkers. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 408–409. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6601Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Targeted therapy. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3610. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5677Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity of Miami – Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyMedical College of Georgia; Augusta UniversityAugustaUSA