Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Hexavalent Chromium

  • John Pierce WiseEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_2707-2



Chromium is a metallic element with oxidation states ranging from +2 to +6. Hexavalent chromium rarely occurs naturally but is produced from anthropogenic sources. Chromium in the hexavalent state occurs naturally only in the rare mineral crocoite (PbCrO4).


Numerous regulatory agencies worldwide have concluded that all hexavalent chromium compounds should be considered carcinogenic among exposed populations although strong evidence has been presented that water-insoluble (also known as particulate) hexavalent chromium compounds are the more potent carcinogens.

Uses and Sources

The metallurgical, refractory, and chemical industries are the major users and producers of hexavalent chromium. The compounds are used for chrome plating, the manufacture of dyes and pigments, leather tanning, and wood preserving. Smaller amounts are used in rust and corrosion inhibitors, drilling muds, textiles, and toner for copying...


Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Hexavalent Chromium Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Trivalent Chromium Chromium Compound 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA