Chromium is a metallic element with oxidation states ranging from +2 to +6. Hexavalent chromium rarely occurs naturally but is produced from anthropogenic sources. Chromium in the hexavalent state occurs naturally only in the rare mineral crocoite (PbCrO4).
Numerous regulatory agencies worldwide have concluded that all hexavalent chromium compounds should be considered carcinogenic among exposed populations although strong evidence has been presented that water-insoluble (also known as particulate) hexavalent chromium compounds are the more potent carcinogens.
Uses and Sources
The metallurgical, refractory, and chemical industries are the major users and producers of hexavalent chromium. The compounds are used for chrome plating, the manufacture of dyes and pigments, leather tanning, and wood preserving. Smaller amounts are used in rust and corrosion inhibitors, drilling muds, textiles, and toner for copying...
KeywordsElectron Paramagnetic Resonance Hexavalent Chromium Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Trivalent Chromium Chromium Compound
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