Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Hexavalent Chromium

  • John Pierce Wise
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_2707-2

Synonyms

Definition

Chromium is a metallic element with oxidation states ranging from +2 to +6. Hexavalent chromium rarely occurs naturally but is produced from anthropogenic sources. Chromium in the hexavalent state occurs naturally only in the rare mineral crocoite (PbCrO4).

Characteristics

Numerous regulatory agencies worldwide have concluded that all hexavalent chromium compounds should be considered carcinogenic among exposed populations although strong evidence has been presented that water-insoluble (also known as particulate) hexavalent chromium compounds are the more potent carcinogens.

Uses and Sources

The metallurgical, refractory, and chemical industries are the major users and producers of hexavalent chromium. The compounds are used for chrome plating, the manufacture of dyes and pigments, leather tanning, and wood preserving. Smaller amounts are used in rust and corrosion inhibitors, drilling muds, textiles, and toner for copying...

Keywords

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Hexavalent Chromium Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Trivalent Chromium Chromium Compound 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Research (1997) Top 20 hazardous substances: ATSDR/EPA priority list for 1997. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Atlanta, GeorgiaGoogle Scholar
  2. DeFlora S, Bagnasco M, Serra D et al (1990) Genotoxicity of chromium compounds. Mutat Res 238:99–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Holmes AL, Wise SS, Sandwick SJ et al (2006) Chronic exposure to lead chromate causes centrosome abnormalities and aneuploidy in human lung cells. Cancer Res 66(8):4041–4048PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. IARC (1990) Chromium, nickel and welding. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 49:1–648Google Scholar
  5. Wise SS, Holmes AL, Sandwick SJ et al (2006) Chronic exposure to lead chromate induces mitotic disruption and chromosome instability. Chem Res Toxicol 19:1492–1498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA