Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Etiology, Risk Factors, and Prevention

  • Takafumi Ichida
  • Yasunobu Matsuda
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_2664-2



Hepatocytes and cholangiocytes are the most common types of liver epithelial cell, and their malignant transformation can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC), respectively.



Oncogenic and Environmental Factors

The radioactive contrast medium thorotrast was used to detect arterial injury during World War II. This medium can become trapped in the reticulo-endothelial system of exposed individuals and can release weak γ-rays over a prolonged period of time. As a result, HCC, angiosarcomas, and CCC can develop ≥10 years after exposure. For this reason, the clinical use of thorotrast was recently prohibited.

Aflatoxin B1, which is found in the fungus Aspergillus flavus, acts as an oncogenic factor of HCC. In 1979, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported the prevalence of HCC to be 13 cases per 100,000 individuals among the Mozambique population. Estimated...


Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus Arterial Blood Supply Hepatic Functional Reserve Liver Cell Adenoma 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hepatology and GastroenterologyJuntendo University School of Medicine, Shizuoka HospitalShizuokaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Medical TechnologyNiigata University Graduate of Health SciencesNiigataJapan