The androgen receptor or AR is a member of the steroid/thyroid receptor superfamily, in which all members share basic structural and functional homology. The AR is an intracellular ligand (androgen)-dependent transcription factor, which regulates the expression of genes that control cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and differentiation in many hormonally regulated tissues including the prostate. It is an important regulator of male sexual differentiation and maturation.
The biological function of androgen is mediated through the AR. Except for the spleen and bone marrow, the AR is ubiquitously expressed in human organs. The human AR gene is more than 90-kb long and is present as a single allele located at chromosome Xq11.2–12. It has eight exons and...