Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Heparanase

  • Israel Vlodavsky
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_2639-2

Definition

Heparanase is a mammalian enzyme (endo-β-glucuronidase) degrading heparan sulfate (HS), a ubiquitous strongly anionic linear polysaccharide associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM) of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. The enzyme cleaves glycosidic bonds in HS with a hydrolase mechanism and is thus distinct from bacterial eliminases, called heparinase and heparitinase. The heparanase enzyme facilitates cell migration and egress from blood vessels and hence plays a role in tumor metastasis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and autoimmunity. Heparanase activity has been identified in a variety of human tumors (i.e., melanoma; carcinoma of the breast, liver, colon, prostate, and pancreas; myeloid leukemia) and certain normal cells (i.e., cytotrophoblasts, platelets, neutrophils, activated T lymphocytes). HS chains (Mr ∼ 30,000) are cleaved by heparanase at only a few sites, resulting in HS fragments of still appreciable size (Mr ∼...

Keywords

Heparan Sulfate Heparan Sulfate Chain Hexuronic Acid Heparanase Activity Angiogenic Cascade 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anatomy and Cell BiologyTechnion Israel Institute of Technology, Cancer and Vascular Biology Research CenterHaifaIsrael