Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Germinoma

  • Frank Saran
  • Alireza Vosough
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_2403-2

Definition

Germinomas are rare malignant primary brain tumors thought to be arising from primordial germ cells of the yolk sac endoderm. They form part of the spectrum of germ cell tumors (GCTs) and are the commonest type of GCT in the central nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, the histopathological appearances are termed germinoma and account for approximately 60 % of all primary intracranial GCTs. Intracranial GCTs are histopathologically identical to their gonadal counterparts with a testicular primary being referred to as a seminoma and an ovarian primary as a dysgerminoma.

Characteristics

Germinomas account for 1–3 % of all intracranial neoplasms and commonly arise in midline structures adjacent to the third ventricle. The most common regions involved are the pineal (∼45 %) and suprasellar (∼35 %) areas. In around 15 % of cases, concurrent lesions are detected in both the pineal gland and the suprasellar area or very rarely the basal ganglia or the brain stem. These tumors are...

Keywords

Germ Cell Tumor Obstructive Hydrocephalus Hemorrhagic Cystitis Mature Teratoma Primary Central Nervous System Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Balmaceda C, Heller G, Rosenblum M et al (1996) Chemotherapy without irradiation–a novel approach for newly diagnosed CNS germ cell tumors: results of an international cooperative trial. The First International Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor Study. J Clin Oncol 14(11):2908–2915PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Buckner JC, Peethambaram PP, Wa S et al (1999) Phase II trial of primary chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose radiation for CNS germ cell tumours. J Clin Oncol 17:933–940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Matsutani M, Sano K, Takakura K et al (1997) Primary intracranial germ cell tumors: a clinical analysis of 153 histologically verified cases. J Neurosurg 86(3):446–455CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Rogers SJ, Mosleh-Shirazi MA, Saran FH (2005) Radiotherapy of localised intracranial germinoma: time to sever historical ties? Lancet Oncol 6(7):509–519CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Sakuma Y, Sakurai S, Oguni S et al (2004) C-kit gene mutations in intracranial germinomas. Cancer Sci 95(9):716–720CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) Carboplatin. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 641. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_833Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Dysgerminoma. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1177. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1759Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Germ Cell Tumors. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1541. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6905Google Scholar
  4. (2012) KIT. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp 1945–1946. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3228Google Scholar
  5. (2012) Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 2136. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3496Google Scholar
  6. (2012) Radiotherapy. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3158. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4926Google Scholar
  7. (2012) Tyrosine Kinase. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3822. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6079Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiotherapy and Paediatric OncologyRoyal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation TrustSuttonUK
  2. 2.Department of RadiotherapyRoyal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation TrustSuttonUK