Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Genomic Imbalance

  • Roberta Vanni
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_2389-2

Definition

Genomic imbalance refers to a genome showing any loss or gain of DNA sequences compared with the reference DNA whole sequence of the genome of interest. The term usually indicates extensive disequilibrium in the number of chromosomes or chromosome segments per cell.

Characteristics

Genomic Imbalance Concept

The relative dosage of genes governing cell physiology is the product of evolution. Human somatic cells have evolved their “genome balance” as diploid, and variation in the number of chromosome copies as compared to the euploidy which has evolved leads to genomic imbalance. This affects gene dosage and, consequently, promotes imbalances in cellular pathways. Most cancer cells acquire genomic imbalance as a consequence of aneuploidy, i.e., an abnormal copy number of genomic elements, identified as gain and/or loss of whole chromosome(s) (aneuploidy) or chromosome segment(s) (partial aneuploidy). Genomic imbalance reflects the karyotype complexity of the cancer cells.

Cancer...

Keywords

Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Sister Chromatid Cohesion Mitotic Checkpoint Aneuploid Cell Centrosome Amplification 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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See Also

  1. (2012) Anaphase. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 168. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6364Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Cell cycle. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 737. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_994Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Diploid. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1124. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1637Google Scholar
  4. (2012) Double minute. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1155. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1717Google Scholar
  5. (2012) Homogeneously staining region. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1725. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2797Google Scholar
  6. (2012) Initiation. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1865. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3057Google Scholar
  7. (2012) Karyotype. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1941. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3200Google Scholar
  8. (2012) Kinetochore. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1944. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3224Google Scholar
  9. (2012) Multipolar spindles. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 2404. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3901Google Scholar
  10. (2012) Separin. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3379. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5247Google Scholar
  11. (2012) Sister-chromatids. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3418. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5329Google Scholar
  12. (2012) Telomere. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3637. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5716Google Scholar
  13. (2012) Ubiquitin. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3825. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6083Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Science & TechnologyUniversity of CagliariMonserrato (CA)Italy