Gastrin is a gastrointestinal hormone that is released from G cells in the gastric antrum and the duodenum. Gastrin acts via the cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R) to stimulate gastric acid secretion and also has important roles in the proliferation of epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract. Release of gastrin is stimulated by food, predominantly protein, and inhibited by a low gastric pH. Gastrin peptides may also function as growth factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC).
In 1905 the British physiologist J. S. Edkins discovered a blood-borne factor that originated from the distal part of the stomach and stimulated gastric acid secretion. He named the factor gastrin and proposed that its mechanism of action was analogous to that of the pancreatic secretagogue secretin from the duodenum. In the 1930s the existence of gastrin was confirmed by the isolation of a gastric acid-stimulating peptide from antral mucosa by the Russian chemist...
KeywordsParietal Cell Gastric Acid Secretion Chronic Atrophic Gastritis Gastrin Release Gastrin Secretion
- Shulkes A, Baldwin GS (2012) Gastrin. In: Kastin AJ (ed) Handbook of biologically active peptides, 2nd edn. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar