Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab


  • Karel Kithier
Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_206-3



AFP or alpha-fetoprotein is a serum protein of mammalian fetuses that is hardly detectable in healthy adults. Its reoccurrence in serum of adults may often attest to specific malignancy especially in high-risk patients, such as those with hepatocellular carcinomas (hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastoma) and chronic hepatitis B or C virus infection (hepatitis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma). It also serves in evaluation (serum biomarkers, surrogate endpoints) of therapy and disease progress in patients with embryonal carcinomas (germ cell tumors, platinum-refractory testicular germ cell tumors).


The studies of fetal serum proteins came from different corners: from researchers interested primarily in the development of proteins and from those studying proteins of tumor-bearing laboratory animals. These two groups were...


Testicular Cancer Fetal Serum Precipitin Line Fetal Protein Immunochemical Technique 
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See Also

  1. (2012) Germ cell tumors. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 1541. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6905Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyWayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA