Mechanism of Action
It is generally accepted that the biological activities of estrogens are mediated by nuclear estrogen receptors (ER) which, upon activation by cognate ligands, form homodimers with another ER–ligand complex and activate the transcription of specific genes containing the estrogen response elements (ERE). According to this classical model, the biological responses to estrogens are mediated by either of the two estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ. The presence of ERα in target tissues or cells is essential to their responsiveness to estrogen action. The expression levels of ERα in a particular tissue have been used as an index of the degree of estrogen responsiveness. For example, human brea...
KeywordsAdrenal Androgen Mammographic Breast Density Centrosome Duplication Ovarian Steroidogenesis Catechol Estrogen
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