Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Endothelins

  • Matthew J. Grimshaw
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_1904-2

Synonyms

Definition

Endothelins (ETs) are a family of three similar, small peptides that are among the strongest vasoconstrictors known and play a key part in vascular homeostasis. Endothelins have numerous roles in tumors including modulating angiogenesis and blood flow, inducing mitogenesis and invasion of tumor cells, immune activation, and protecting cells from apoptosis.

Characteristics

Endothelins (ETs) are a family of small, structurally related, vasoactive peptides that have a variety of physiological roles in many tissues, notably vascular homeostasis. The “ET axis” consists of three peptides, two receptors, and two activating enzymes (Table 1). Some examples of the roles of ETs in both normal physiology and pathological conditions are shown below:
Table 1

Genes and peptide sequences of ET axis members. Amino acids that differ in ET-2 and/or ET-3 from ET-1 are marked in bold/red

Gene

Mapping position

Keywords

Cervical Cancer Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Hypoxia Response Element Breast Tumor Microenvironment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Grimshaw MJ (2005) Endothelins in breast tumour cell invasion. Cancer Lett 222(2):129–138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Kedzierski RM, Yanagisawa M (2001) Endothelin system: the double-edged sword in health and disease. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 41:851–876CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Nelson J, Bagnato A, Battistini B et al (2003) The endothelin axis: emerging role in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 3(2):110–116CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) Atrasentan. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 303. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_444Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Boyden Chambers. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 465. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_696Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Endothelin Converting Enzyme. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1254. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1903Google Scholar
  4. (2012) ET-RA. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1339. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2024Google Scholar
  5. (2012) ET-RB. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1339. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2025Google Scholar
  6. (2012) G-protein Couple Receptor. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1587. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2294Google Scholar
  7. (2012) Invasive Ductal Carcinoma. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1906. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3134Google Scholar
  8. (2012) Lymph Node Metastases. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 2116. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3444Google Scholar
  9. (2012) Prostate Cancer. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3009–3010. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6576Google Scholar
  10. (2012) Stroma. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3541. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5532Google Scholar
  11. (2012) Stromal Cells. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3544. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5535Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Breast Cancer Biology GroupKing’s College London School of Medicine, Guy’s HospitalLondonUK