DNA Damage Tolerance
Living reference work entry
DNA damage tolerance is a biological mechanism in response to DNA damage which overcomes arrested DNA replication as a result of unrepaired DNA damage, leading to elimination of its potential lethal effects.
DNA is frequently damaged by endogenous and environmental factors. Base damage in DNA template strands blocks transcription to allow time to activate transcription-coupled repair pathways and eliminate DNA base damage. However, some lesions are persistent during replication therefore causing replication blockage and cell death. In order to overcome this problem, cells have evolved a damage tolerance system to allow complete replication in the presence of DNA damage. This process bypasses, rather removes, DNA damage, therefore, it is also named replicative bypass. It enables the cell to tolerate DNA damage and promote cell survival at the expense of high mutation rate. In...
KeywordsTranslesion Synthesis Lesion Bypass Correct Nucleotide Flexible Active Site Replicative Bypass
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