Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

DNA Damage Response

  • Mau-Sun Chang
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_1670-2

Definition

Damage to DNA invokes several cellular responses that enable cells either to eliminate the damage or activate programmed cell death. These responses include activation of checkpoints to arrest progression through the cell cycle; removal or repair of damaged DNA to prevent the transmission of damaged chromosomes to daughter cells; induction of genes required for DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis; and apoptosis to eliminate cells too seriously damaged or deregulated to repair.

Characteristics

Sources of Damage

Endogenous attack by reactive oxygen speciescan induce several types of damage to DNA bases, including oxidation and the generation of DNA strand interruptions; alkylation, depurination, and depyrimidination; and wrongly mismatched bases coupled to a new DNA strand. Exogenous damage is caused by a variety of external agents. Ultraviolet light from the sun causes cross-linking between adjacent thymine bases, creating pyrimidine dimers. Ionizing radiation from...

Keywords

Nucleotide Excision Repair Fanconi Anemia Xeroderma Pigmentosum Homologous Recombination Repair Cockayne Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

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See Also

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  4. (2012) CDC25. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 704. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_953Google Scholar
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  22. (2012) Sister-Chromatids. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3418. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5329Google Scholar
  23. (2012) Translesion Synthesis. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3772. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5939Google Scholar
  24. (2012) Ultraviolet Light. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3841. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6101Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Biochemical SciencesNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan