Fumaric acid is one of two isomeric unsaturated dicarboxylic acids with the formula HO2CCH=CHCO2H (the other being maleic acid with carboxylic acid groups in cis). Reactions with alcohol create fumaric acid esters (FAE) and water.
Chemistry and Pharmacodynamics
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a lipophilic ester of fumaric acid (Fumaric acid is a dicarbonic acid and a component of the intracellular citric acid cycle). DMF is rapidly hydrolyzed to methyl hydrogen fumarate (MHF) in aqueous solutions at physiological pH.
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- Kastrati I, Siklos MI, Calderon-Gierszal EL et al (2016) Dimethyl Fumarate Inhibits the Nuclear Factor κB Pathway in Breast Cancer Cells by Covalent Modification of p65 Protein. J Biol Chem. 291(7):3639–47. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.679704. Epub 2015 Dec 18