Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Cytochrome P450

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_1460-2

Synonyms

Definition

Cytochrome P450 stands for a superfamily of closely related proteins that protect the individual against potentially harmful substances by modifying these substances by oxidation, hydroxylation, dealkylation, or dehalogenation, thereby increasing polarity and solubility and thus facilitating excretion from the body.

Characteristics

The body of an organism has a powerful system to facilitate the excretion of potentially harmful substances: the cytochrome P450 system. Cytochrome P450 stands for a superfamily of more than 50 closely related heme-containing enzymes, which can be divided into families (with at least 40 % sequence homology on the amino acid level) and subfamilies (with at least 55 % sequence homology), each with their own substrate specificity. The designation P450 is derived from the specific spectral absorbance at 450 nm of these proteins. The nomenclature is “CYP,” followed by an Arabic number to indicate the family, then a capital letter...

Keywords

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia CYP450 Enzyme Poor Metabolizers CYP2D6 Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Ingelman-Sundberg M, Oscarson M, McLellan R (1999) Polymorphic human cytochrome P450 enzymes: an opportunity for individualized drug treatment. Trends Pharmacol Sci 20:342–349CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Nelson DR, Koyman L, Kamataki T et al (1996) P450 superfamily: update on new sequences, gene mapping, accession numbers and nomenclature. Pharmacogenetics 6:1–42CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Solus JF, Arietta BJ, Harris JR et al (2004) Genetic variation in eleven phase I drug metabolism genes in an ethnically diverse population. Pharmacogenomics 5:895–931CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. van Schaik RHN (2005) Cancer treatment and pharmacogenetics of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Invest New Drugs 23:513–522CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

See Also

  1. (2012) Single nucleotide polymorphism. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3412. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5316Google Scholar
  2. (2012) SNP. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3460. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5395Google Scholar
  3. (2012) Variant allele. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3885. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6152Google Scholar
  4. (2012) Wild-type. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3947. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6247Google Scholar
  5. (2012) Pharmacogenetics. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of cancer, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 2840. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4496Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical ChemistryErasmus University Medical CenterRotterdamThe Netherlands