Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Aflatoxins

  • Thomas E. Massey
  • Katherine A. Guindon
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_135-2

Definition

Mycotoxins are contaminants of a number of agricultural products, including peanuts, corn, and other grains in warm and moist conditions. Human exposure to aflatoxins is primarily through ingestion and results in acute hepatic necrosis, marked bile duct hyperplasia, acute loss of appetite, wing weakness, and lethargy.

Characteristics

In the early 1960s, an outbreak of hepatotoxic disease in turkeys, which became known as turkey “X” disease, gained the attention of many investigators worldwide. This condition was characterized by acute hepatic necrosis, marked bile duct hyperplasia, acute loss of appetite, wing weakness, and lethargy. It was deduced that the condition was caused by consumption of peanut meal contaminated with a mycotoxin, which is a toxin of fungal origin. The culprit fungi in turkey “X” disease turned out to be strains of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. nomius, and thus the term aflatoxins was coined for the toxic metabolites. More specifically, A....

Keywords

Nucleotide Excision Repair Glutathione Conjugation Detoxification Product Apurinic Site Acute Hepatic Necrosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References

  1. Bedard LL, Massey TE (2006) Aflatoxin B-induced DNA damage and its repair. Cancer Lett 241(2):174–183CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Eaton DL, Groopman JD (eds) (1994) The toxicology of aflatoxins: human health, veterinary, and agricultural significance. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 3–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Massey TE, Stewart RK, Daniels JM et al (1995) Biochemical and molecular aspects of mammalian susceptibility to aflatoxin B carcinogenicity. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 208(3):213–227CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Massey TE, Smith GBJ, Tam AS (2000) Mechanisms of aflatoxin B lung tumorigenesis. Exp Lung Res 26:673–683CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Wogan GN (1973) Aflatoxin carcinogenesis. Meth Cancer Res 7:309–344Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical and Molecular SciencesQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada