Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Chromosomal Translocations

  • Francisco J. Novo
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_1144-2

Definition

A chromosomal translocation is a type of rearrangement between two chromosomes (usually nonhomologous) that involves breakage of each chromosome at a specific point called breakpoint, followed by fusion of the fragments generated by these breaks. A causative role has been demonstrated for some chromosomal translocations in various cancer types.

Characteristics

Instability of the genome, chromosomal instability in particular, is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Therefore, chromosomal rearrangements are very common in cancer cells. A frequent type of rearrangement is the translocation of genomic fragments between different chromosomal regions. The simplest case is a reciprocal translocation between two chromosomes, but translocations can also involve three or more chromosomes. If no genetic material is lost in the process, translocations are said to be “balanced.” A well-known example of a reciprocal chromosomal translocation in cancer is the t(9;22) implicating the ABL1gene...

Keywords

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Chromosomal Translocation Translocation Breakpoint Chromatin Loop Bone Marrow Progenitor Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Aplan PD (2006) Causes of oncogenic chromosomal translocation. Trends Genet 22:46–55CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Lin C, Yang L, Tanasa B, Hutt K, Ju BG, Ohgi K, Zhang J, Rose DW, Fu XD, Glass CK, Rosenfeld MG (2009) Nuclear receptor-induced chromosomal proximity and DNA breaks underlie specific translocations in cancer. Cell 139:1069–1083CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Meaburn KJ, Misteli T, Soutoglou E (2007) Spatial genome organization in the formation of chromosomal translocations. Semin Cancer Biol 17:80–90CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. van Gent DC, Hoeijmakers JH, Kanaar R (2001) Chromosomal stability and the DNA double-stranded break connection. Nat Rev Genet 2:196–206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Zhang Y, Rowley JD (2006) Chromatin structural elements and chromosomal translocations in leukemia. DNA Repair 5:1282–1297CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and GeneticsUniversity of NavarraPamplonaSpain