Chromatin remodeling is regulated by reorganization of nucleosome position by ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factors (ADNR) and covalent modifications of histone proteins. Because chromatin structure affects the binding of proteins including transcription factors to DNA, it is involved in many essential cellular processes.
Nucleosome (nucleosomes) consists of 147 bp DNA wrapped around the histone octamer comprising histone proteins, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Since the position of nucleosomes on DNA and the chromatin structure can affect the binding of proteins to DNA, chromatin remodeling is required for all the key processes such as gene expression (epigenetic gene silencing), DNA replication, repair, chromosomal recombination, and mitosis. ADNR factors, SWI-/SNF-type factors, which are the part of multiprotein complexes, shuffle the nucleosomes and change chromatin structure and organization...