Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Childhood Cancer

  • Stefan K. Zöllner
  • Amal M. Abu-Ghosh
  • Jeffrey A. Toretsky
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_1089-2


Childhood cancer, also known as pediatric cancer, describes a cancerous tumor burden, which can occur anywhere in the body originating from cells with the propensity to invade surrounding tissue and to spread from its primary site of occurrence, the latter referred to as metastasis, and specifically affects children and adolescents.



In general, cancer in children and teenagers is uncommon, representing between 0.5 % and 4.6 % of all cancer. The incidence of childhood cancers such as leukemia (Hematological Malignancies, Leukemias and Lymphomas) and tumors of the brain and central nervous system (CNS) (see Brain Tumors, Pediatric Brain Tumors, Neuro-Oncology: Primary CNS Tumors) varies between countries with higher overall rates in industrialized countries, while, for example, populations in sub-Saharan Africa have higher incidence rates of lymphomas (Hematological Malignancies, Leukemias and Lymphomas) than other regions. These variations may...


Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Germ Cell Tumor Childhood Cancer Synovial Sarcoma Burkitt Lymphoma 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan K. Zöllner
    • 1
  • Amal M. Abu-Ghosh
    • 2
  • Jeffrey A. Toretsky
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Hematology and OncologyUniversity Childrens Hospital MünsterMünsterGermany
  2. 2.Department of Oncology and Pediatrics, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer CenterGeorgetown UniversityWashingtonUSA