Encyclopedia of Astrobiology

Living Edition
| Editors: Muriel Gargaud, William M. Irvine, Ricardo Amils, Henderson James Cleaves, Daniele Pinti, José Cernicharo Quintanilla, Michel Viso

Fumarole

  • Jörn Helbert
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27833-4_605-3

Definition

Fumaroles (Latin fumus, smoke) are vents from which volcanic gas escapes into the atmosphere. Fumaroles may occur along tiny cracks or long fissures, in chaotic clusters or fields, and on the surfaces of lava flows and thick deposits of pyroclastic (explosive ash) flows. They may persist for decades or centuries if they are above a persistent heat source or disappear within weeks to months if they occur atop a fresh volcanic deposit that quickly cools.

Fumaroles are common on Earth; for example, there are an estimated four thousand fumaroles within the boundaries of Yellowstone National Park. The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified possible fumarolic deposits in Gusev crater.

See Also

Keywords

Heat Source Bioorganic Chemistry Lava Flow Volcanic Deposit Thick Deposit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DLRInstitut für PlanetenforschungBerlinGermany