Encyclopedia of Astrobiology

Living Edition
| Editors: Muriel Gargaud, William M. Irvine, Ricardo Amils, Henderson James Cleaves, Daniele Pinti, José Cernicharo Quintanilla, Michel Viso

DNA Damage

  • Thierry Douki
  • Jean Cadet
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27833-4_451-2

Synonyms

Definition

DNAdamage consists in chemical modifications of the deoxyribonucleic acid components that include alterations of the four main purine (adenine, guanine) and pyrimidine (cytosine, thymine) bases, the relatively minor 5-methylcytosine base and the 2-deoxyribose moiety. According to the damaging agents that may be endogenous (reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite, etc.) and exogenous (solar light, ionizing radiation, alkylating compounds, etc.), several classes of DNA lesions may be generated. These include single- and double-strand breaks, normal and oxidized abasic sites, single modified bases (oxidized lesions, alkylated adducts, addition products with reactive aldehyde arising from the breakdown of lipid peroxides, and 2-deoxyribose oxidation), tandem modifications (intrastrand bipyrimidine photoproducts, vicinal oxidized bases), DNA-protein cross-links, interstrand cross-links, and clustered lesions (association...

Keywords

Bipyrimidine photoproducts Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers DNA oxidation products DNA strand breaks 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine Pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts Spore photoproduct 
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References and Further Reading

  1. Cadet T, Douki T (2010) Molecular effects of UV and ionizing radiation on DNA. In: Gargaud M, Lopez-Garcia P, Matin H (eds) Origins and evolution of life: an astrobiological perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 359–374Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire Lésions des Acides NucléiquesInstitute Nanosciences et Cryogénie/CEAGrenobleFrance