Encyclopedia of Astrobiology

Living Edition
| Editors: Muriel Gargaud, William M. Irvine, Ricardo Amils, Henderson James Cleaves, Daniele Pinti, José Cernicharo Quintanilla, Michel Viso

Coleman-Sagan Equation

  • Catharine A Conley
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27833-4_317-3


The Coleman-Sagan equation is used for establishing the probability of contaminating another planetary body by Earth microorganisms and was first published by S. Coleman and C. Sagan in 1965.

This formula can be written as \( {P}_{\mathrm{c}}={N}_0\;R{P}_{\mathrm{S}}\;{P}_{\mathrm{I}}\;{P}_{\mathrm{R}}\;{P}_{\mathrm{g}} \)


Bioorganic Chemistry Liquid Water Reduction Factor Initial Number Fractional Number 
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References and Further Reading

  1. Sagan C, Coleman S (1965) Spacecraft sterilization standards and contamination of Mars. Astronaut Aeronaut 3(5):1–22Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NASA HeadquartersWashingtonUSA