Encyclopedia of Astrobiology

Living Edition
| Editors: Muriel Gargaud, William M. Irvine, Ricardo Amils, Henderson James Cleaves, Daniele Pinti, José Cernicharo Quintanilla, Michel Viso

Species (Prokaryote)

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27833-4_1876-3

Definition

A species is a category that circumscribes a (preferably) genomically coherent group of individual isolates/strains sharing a high degree of similarity in (many) independent features, comparatively tested under highly standardized conditions (Rosselló-Mora and Amann 2001).

Overview

Species is the basic unit and most important taxonomic rank in prokaryote classification, represented by a group of microorganisms that have a genotypic relationship and coherent phenotypic features. The concept of species in prokaryotes is quite complex, since it is based on the premises of the species adopted for higher organisms, which are differentiated by the inability of reproduction among the organisms. However, this concept cannot be applied to prokaryotes, able to exchange genetic material easily among different species. Besides, morphologically they are not so diverse, and thus the relative morphologic simplicity of most prokaryotic microorganisms implies that morphology is, in general,...

Keywords

Classification DNA-DNA hybridization Phylogeny Taxonomy 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Further Reading

  1. Bapteste E, Boucher Y, Leigh J, Doolittle WF (2004) Phylogenetic reconstruction and lateral gene transfer. Trends Microbiol 12:406–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brenner DJ, Staley JT, Krieg NR (2005) Classification of prokaryotic organisms and the concept of bacterial speciation. In: Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 2, 2nd edn, The Proteobacteria, Part A. Springer, New York, pp 27–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gevers D, Cohan FM, Lwrence JG, Spratt G, Coenye T, Feil EJ, Stackebrandt E, Van de Peer Y, Vandamme P, Thompson FL, Swings J (2005) Re-evaluating prokaryotic species. Nat Rev Microbiol 3:733–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Konstantinidis KT, Tiedje JM (2005) Genomic insights that advance the species definition for prokaryotes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:2567–2572CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Richter M, Rosselló-Móra R (2009) Shifting the genomic gold standard for the prokaryotic species definition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:19126–19131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Rosselló-Mora R, Amann R (2001) The species concept for prokaryotes. FEMS Microbiol Rev 25:39–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Stackebrandt E, Goebel BM (1994) Taxonomic note: a place for DNA-DNA reassociation and 16 S rRNA sequence analysis in the present species definition in bacteriology. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:846–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Stackebrandt E, Frederiksen W, Garrity GM, Griment PAD, Kämpfer P, Maiden MCJ, Nesme X, Rosselló-Mora R, Swings J, Trüper HG, Vauterin L, Ward AC, Whitman WB (2002) Report of the ad hoc committee for the re-evaluation of the species definition in bacteriology. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:1043–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Tindall BJ, Rosselló-Mora R, Busse H-J, Ludwig W, Kämpfer P (2010) Notes on the characterization of prokaryote strains for taxonomic purposes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60:249–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Vandamme P, Pot B, Gillis M, de Vos P, Kersters K, Swings J (1996) Polyphasic taxonomy, a consensus approach to bacterial systematics. Microbiol Rev 60:407–438Google Scholar
  11. Wayne LG, Brenner DJ, Colwell RR, Grimont PAD, Kandler O, Krichevsky MI, Moore LH, Moore WEC, Murray RGE, Stackebrandt E, Starr MP, Truper HG (1987) Report of the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics. Int J Syst Bacteriol 37:463–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of SevillaSevillaSpain