Encyclopedia of Astrobiology

Living Edition
| Editors: Muriel Gargaud, William M. Irvine, Ricardo Amils, Henderson James Cleaves, Daniele Pinti, José Cernicharo Quintanilla, Michel Viso

Breccia

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27833-4_1762-3

Synonyms

Definition

Breccia is a rock composed of angular fragments. It is produced by sedimentary, magmatic, or tectonic processes. A sedimentary breccia is a coarse-grained (particle size >2 mm) rock composed of angular rock fragments held together by cement or dispersed in a fine-grained solidified matrix. It originates as a result of sedimentary processes such as talus accumulation (sedimentary breccia), disturbance during sedimentation (intraclastic breccia), or collapse of rocky surfaces such as the roof of a cave (collapse breccia). Magmatic breccia results from explosive eruptions (pyroclastic breccia), hydrovolcanic fragmentation in diatremes (funnel-shaped pipes), or mechanical fragmentation in intrusive settings. Tectonic processes such as frictional slip along a fault produce fault breccia. Breccia containing angular clasts and fine-grained matrix produced by meteoritic impact is a common rock on planetary surfaces. The anorthositebrecciaof the lunar highlands...

Keywords

Explosive Eruption Tectonic Process Fault Produce Planetary Surface Meteoritic Impact 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GEOTOP Research Center for Geochemistry and GeodynamicsUniversité du Québec à MontréalMontréalCanada