Encyclopedia of Astrobiology

Living Edition
| Editors: Muriel Gargaud, William M. Irvine, Ricardo Amils, Henderson James Cleaves, Daniele Pinti, José Cernicharo Quintanilla, Michel Viso

Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa

  • Axel Hofmann
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27833-4_1609-3


The Transvaal Supergroup is best known for excellent exposures of a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate ramp grading upward into an extensive carbonate platform overlain by banded-iron formation. Deposited on the Kaapvaal Craton between 2,670 and 2,050 Ma, the Transvaal Supergroup is best preserved in the Transvaal and Griqualand West structural basins in South Africa, and extends into Botswana as the Kanye basin. It comprises four unconformity-bounded sequences: (1) a lower sequence of stratigraphically unresolved siliciclastic and volcanic rocks of restricted lateral extent; (2) quartz arenites of the Black Reef Formation (Vryburg Formation in the Griqualand West basin); (3) predominantly chemical sedimentary rocks (dolomite and banded-iron formation) of the Chuniespoort (or Ghaap) Group (including rock sequences of the well-developed Campbellrand-Malmaniplatform); and (4) sandstones, mudrocks, and minor basalt-andesite flows of the Pretoria (or Postmasburg) Group. The...


Carbonate Platform Iron Formation Lateral Extent Rock Sequence Quartz Arenite 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa