Animal Models

  • Shalini Krishnasamy
  • Sara Flores
  • Farzam Gorouhi
  • Howard I. Maibach
Living reference work entry


Skin aging is a complex process that is categorized into either intrinsic or extrinsic actinic aging. Extrinsic actinic aging results from environmental factors, namely ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which is commonly referred to as photoaging, and is characterized by wrinkles and dryness. In contrast to extrinsic aging, intrinsic aging is gene dependent and occurs over time due to variety of physiological factors (ex/ hormonal changes). Numerous studies have been performed in an attempt to understand how the architecture of the skin changes with age and to uncover the mechanism by which this occurs [1]. There is also a large body of studies focused on determining how to prevent and reverse the effects of photoaging. As such, providing an in-depth review of the literature would not be possible in a single chapter. Therefore, the aim of this chapter is to lay a general framework of the various studies that have been performed in animal models regarding skin aging and to highlight what conclusions can be drawn from them and what has yet to be uncovered.


Galic Acid Topical Application Hairless Mouse Skin Aging Intrinsic Aging 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We would like to thank Dr. John Epstein for his generous assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shalini Krishnasamy
    • 1
  • Sara Flores
    • 2
  • Farzam Gorouhi
    • 3
  • Howard I. Maibach
    • 4
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  3. 3.Department of DermatologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  4. 4.Department of DermatologyUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

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