Hyperpigmentation problems, such as postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, solar lentigos, and melasma, can occur across all skin types with aging. Basic understanding of the pigmentation process and of these skin problems has led to their management by attacking proven targets with proven technologies. To name just a few examples, tyrosinase inhibition, blocking melanosome transfer, inhibition of tyrosinase glycosylation, increasing tyrosinase turnover, and blocking inflammation are clinically demonstrated approaches using, respectively, kojic acid, niacinamide, N-acetyl glucosamine, hexyldecanol, and phytosterol. Yet, because of the complexity of the pigmentation process, changes in skin with aging, and the involvement of a variety of cells (melanocytes, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and inflammatory cells) in initiation, production, and processing of melanin, there are likely many more potential targets still to be characterized and fully exploited.
This review chapter explores these topics. Also, it briefly discusses other important skin chromophores that likely contribute to the color of aging skin, opening further approaches to understand skin color and to develop approaches for treatment of discoloration. Additionally, investigative tools such as laboratory model systems for understanding the pigmentation process and screening for potential active technologies are presented. Furthermore, since evaluating the effectiveness of technology on human subjects is a key step in validating any new approach to treatment, clinical methods are also briefly discussed.
- Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation
- Reactive oxygen species
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Hakozaki, T., Swanson, C.L., Bissett, D.L. (2015). Hyperpigmentation in Aging Skin. In: Farage, M., Miller, K., Maibach, H. (eds) Textbook of Aging Skin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27814-3_51-3
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Online ISBN: 978-3-642-27814-3
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